20. mayo 2019 - 9:00
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Reservoir Simulation - Fundamentals: Mexico City | | lunes, 20. mayo 2019

 Course overview
This is a basic reservoir simulation course that is designed for novice engineers in reservoir simulation of engineers needing a refresher in the basics of reservoir simulation. Th course begins with discussion of the fundamentals of reservoir simulation. Why and how  and under what conditions reservoir simulation is necessary over, for instance, a simple material balance. The course refreshes the student in the basics of the partial differential equation, the diffusivity equation, beginning in 1-D coordinate systems. The analytical solutions to the diffusivity equation are discussed and the assumptions are presented that allow the use of finite differences to be utilized to create a system a algebraic equations that can be solved by iterative procedures. We then discuss the solution methods, implicit, explicit and IMPES methods. We discuss the conditions for stability and convergence and the applicability of each of the methods. We review matrix solvers and establish the fundamental engine in all finite difference simulators.
After this we discuss simple 1-D, single phase applications for simple short term well tests. We cover the basics of time step optimization and move on the more sophisticated problems like design of a hydraulic fracture, design and simulation of horizontal wells, and eventually multi-well simulation of pattern water injection models that require understanding the basics of two phase flow, gridding a pattern area, optimizing specific patterns based on reservoir properties and analysis of saturation fronts as water injection proceeds. We conclude with the concepts of history matching with field case histories and demonstration of full field modelling. During the course we have modules that allow the attended to perform practical  simulation with the use of RFD’s TNavigator.
The course is designed for
This course is designed for engineers with a good grasp of fundamental reservoir engineering principles. This could be a fresh graduate with limited exposure to simulation principles and applications or more experienced engineers that have had limited exposure to numerical simulation and would like to learn or refresh their knowledge base. The course is designed such that attendees with little or no experience in reservoir simulation can pick up the principles and run a modern reservoir simulator for very simple to more complex small models (i.e. single well to multi-well pattern models)
Course objectives
Learn or refresh the basic mathematics behind numerical simulationDiscuss the practical use of reservoir simulationLearn the numerical methods to convert partial differential equations into simulation equations using finite differencesTeach the attendee how to simulate simple single well models like well tests, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells with practical modules and direct use of softwareDiscuss the concepts of a successful history match in preparation for forecasting infill wells, water injection projects and gas injection EORFortify the learnings with case history studies of simulation projectsDemonstrate large projects with multi-million cell models and the current state of the art in speed efficiency for TNavigator 
Course outline
Day 1 Morning

Introduction to reservoir simulation
Diffusivity equation and partial differential equations
Analytical and numerical solutions to diffusivity equation
Application of finite differences for system of algebraic equations
*Simulation of single well pressure transient test (1-D)

Day 1 Afternoon

Pressure transient analysis
Description of damage, geometric and mechanical skin
Determination of reservoir permeability
Discussion of boundary conditions
Discussion of cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems
*Simulation of single well pressure transient test (1-D)

 Day 2 Morning

Numerical solutions to 1-D diffusivity equation
Implicit, explicit and IMPES solutions to diffusivity equation
Flow chart for solution of implicit method
Use of matrix solvers for solution of iterative equations
Extension of 1-D simulation models to 2-D and 3-D
Relative permeability, capillary pressure for oil-water and gas-oil systems 

Day 2 Afternoon

Principles of hydraulic fracturing
Determination of fracture conductivity
Use of fine grid blocks to simulate hydraulic fracture
Fracture permeability and half-length
*Simulation of hydraulic fracture in vertical well (2-D)

Day 3 Morning

Horizontal well simulation
Peaceman’s equation and productivity index
Inflow performance and calculation of well index
Vertical permeability and determination net pay thickness
Review of open-hole logging for determination of porosity and net pay 

Day 3 Afternoon

Horizontal wells and sensitivity of EUR to lateral length
Gridding fundamentals for horizontal wells
Principles of symmetry
*Simulation of horizontal well in Cartesian coordinates

Day 4 Morning

Multi-well principles in reservoir simulation
Waterflood principles
Pressure maintenance and secondary to primary ratio
Patterns for water injection (5-spot, 9-spot...etc) 

Day 4 Afternoon

Gridding principles for injection wells
Rate and pressure constraints for production and injection wells
Optimization of patterns for maximum reserves
*Simulation of water injection in patterns

Day 5 Morning

Aquifers and water drive (peripheral and bottom water drive)
Simulation of aquifers
Initialization of aquifer models with capillary pressure
History matching principles
History matching average reservoir pressure and flowing BHP
History matching GOR, WOR field-wide and for individual wells 

Day 5 Afternoon

Complex large-scale models
Demonstration of field-wide models
RFD’s demo of speed of tNav

Course terms and conditions